Commuter Parking Memo

Memorandum

Prepared by Nelson Nygaard

Note: For the full/PDF version of this memo, please email eglintonwestlrt@toronto.ca

To:            Mike Logan, Program Manager, City of Toronto Transit Implementation Unit

From:      Nelson Nygaard

Date:      January 28, 2019

Subject:  DRAFT Eglinton Avenue West Corridor Commuter Parking Assessment

1. Introduction

The Eglinton Avenue West corridor study area encompasses a 1,500 meter wide, 9.2 kilometer long stretch of Eglinton Avenue West from Weston Road to the Mississauga boundary just west of Renforth Drive (Figure 1). The study area is centered on the future westward expansion of the Eglinton Crosstown LRT line, which will eventually extend from its current terminus at Mount Dennis along Eglinton Avenue West through to Mississauga. The study area contains a built environment comprised of a mixture of single-family housing, high-density apartment housing, and some low-density retail and commercial development. It includes four creeks and rivers, large areas of green space, and the large intersection of Highways 401 and 427.

2. BACKGROUND

Existing Conditions

Demographics & Travel Patterns

Approximately 136,000 people, five percent of Toronto’s population, live in the study area. 61 percent of these residents own their homes, while 39 percent rent. Roughly half of the corridor’s population lives in higher density apartment buildings, though these are not the dominant building typology, while the remainder live in single family homes[1]. This residential pattern is typical of many inner suburban areas around the Toronto region.

71 percent of employed study area residents work in the City of Toronto, while 29 percent work in other municipalities. Two thirds of these working residents commute by car and 30 percent commute by transit. By comparison, in the City of Toronto as a whole, 51 percent commute in a car, 37 percent by transit, nine percent by foot, and three percent by bicycle[2]. The rate of car commuting varies along the corridor, and is as high as 73 percent at the western end of the corridor and as low as 53 percent at the eastern end. 55 percent of these commuters travel between 15 and 45 minutes each way to work. 18 percent commute for one hour or more each way. The study area is itself home to approximately 16,700 jobs, of which 68 percent are full-time and 32 percent are part time[3].

Transit Service

Buses, primarily operated by the TTC, currently provide the only transit service in the study area. The TTC’s Route 32, which travels on Eglinton Avenue West from Renforth Drive to Eglinton West Subway Station, is the primary east-west transit service along the corridor. Route 32 operates at eight to ten minute headways and is one of the busiest routes in the TTC Network, with approximately 50,000 daily riders. [4] [5] Additional north-south TTC bus service is provided by Routes 112, 111, 46, 45, 37, 73, 48, 79, 35, and 89 at relatively regular one kilometer intervals on the major north-south cross streets intersecting Eglinton Avenue West. Routes 45, 35, and 89, which run north-south on Kipling Avenue, Jane Street, and Weston Road respectively, operate as frequent services, with headways of ten minutes or less. Routes 405, 73B, 71B, and 32D provide limited circulatory service at points along the corridor, in some cases to serve senior housing in the area. TTC routes 945, 935, and 989 provide north-south express service through the study area. In addition to TTC bus service, 11 MiWay bus routes provide service to the Renforth stop at the western end of the corridor where the Mississauga Transitway terminates.

Pedestrian Environment

The pedestrian network within the study area allows people to access much of the corridor by walking, but has some gaps in pedestrian connectivity. There are sidewalks on at least one side of Eglinton Avenue West along its length in the study area, and there are pedestrian-signalized crosswalks at all major intersections. Currently, there are no sidewalks on the north side of Eglinton Avenue West from Renforth Drive to Rangoon Road (950 meters), the East Mall to Willowridge Road (700 meters), Kipling Avenue to Royal York Road (two kilometers), and from Jane St to Pearen Park (450 meters).

There is a sidewalk along most of the south side of Eglinton Avenue West, as well as a multi-use trail. The segment between Renforth Drive and Highway 427, where both pedestrian and cycling traffic must share the trail, is an exception to this.

The pedestrian environment within the study area is heavily impacted by the dominant presence of automobiles. Along the entirety of Eglinton Avenue West, large traffic volumes moving at relatively high speeds create a loud and intimidating environment for pedestrians. While most sidewalks are set back from Eglinton Avenue West, at certain points, particularly east of Scarlett Road, sidewalks bring people walking in close proximity to vehicular traffic. A large number of parcels fronting Eglinton are back-lotted, meaning that there are few mid-block pedestrian destinations. This lack of commercial or residential frontage on Eglinton Avenue West makes for a sensation of isolation for people walking.

Bicycle Network

Multiple designated bicycle routes run along, and through, the study area. A multi-use trail runs on the south side of Eglinton Avenue West from Jane Street all the way to Mississauga, and provides safe and direct east-west bicycle connectivity along the corridor. There are very few driveways off Eglinton, which ensures a direct, mostly uninterrupted cycling route. There are points where the trail is substandard, either due to the lack of sufficient separation from vehicular traffic – from the western hydro corridor to Hwy 427 – or from pedestrians – at the Humber Bridge. The City is currently extending the multi-use trail from Jane Street to Pearen Street, which is planned to be completed in 2019.

There are off-street multi-use trails running north-south along Mimico Creek, at the west end of the study area, and along the Humber River at the east end.

There is minimal on-street bicycle infrastructure within the study area. Royal York Road and Martin Grove Road have painted on-street bicycle lanes, though the bike lanes on Martin Grove Road only extend southward from Eglinton Avenue West, and the ones at Royal York Road are discontinued briefly at the intersection with Eglinton. Lloyd Manor Road, Wincott Drive and Bemersyde Drive have been identified as quiet road streets in the City’s cycling map, but no bicycle improvements have yet been implemented on these streets. The City is in the process of developing a proposal for a road diet for Scarlett Road south of Eglinton, which may result in some form of cycling infrastructure as well.

No other major north-south streets within the study area have on-street bicycle infrastructure, potentially limiting the ability of local residents to access Eglinton Avenue West by bicycle.

Street Geometry

Eglinton Avenue West is wide along its entire length in the study area. It is primarily comprised of two lanes per direction, with left-turn lanes and some right-turn lanes at intersecting cross streets and major driveways. The right of way (ROW), measured between property lines adjacent to Eglinton Avenue West, ranges from 26 meters to over 50 meters wide. For comparison, most major streets that intersect Eglinton Avenue West within the study area are between 15 and 20 meters wide while most local streets are ten meters wide. Eglinton Avenue West is widest between Highway 401 and Martin Grove Road and narrowest between Highway 401 and Matheson Boulevard East. Along most of its length in the study area, Eglinton Avenue West is approximately 20 meters wide between intersections, and 22 to 25 meters wide at intersections.

Planned Development

Ten new developments are proposed, approved, under construction, or going through Ontario Municipal Board Appeal along the corridor. These developments are predominately residential condominium towers and townhomes. Two of the developments are intended for older populations. A healthcare center, commercial space and childcare facilities (one paired with the retirement home) are also proposed. These will bring new residents, including many potentially transit dependent residents, to the study area and will add to the demand for mobility along the corridor. These developments are outlined below:

Table 1   Proposed Developments along the Eglinton Avenue West Corridor

Address Use Phase
7 Richgrove 16 story rental apartment Proposed
4780 Eglinton Avenue Townhouses Under Construction
41-53 Warrender Avenue Condos Proposed
250 Wincott Drive Condos Proposed
4750 – 4650 Eglinton W Mid-rise retirement home + daycare + townhouses Under Construction

 

4000 Eglinton Ave 4 towers (21 – 25 stories) OMB Appeal
45 La Rose Avenue 7 story Building Approved
1 Richview Road 21 story Residential Building Proposed
82 Buttonwood Avenue

 

West Park healthcare center and senior village Proposed
2 Buttonwood Avenue Senior apartment building Proposed
1234 Weston Road Childcare facility Proposed
1391 Weston Road Commercial Proposed

 3. Multi-modal Opportunities & Constraints

First-mile and last-mile transportation options in the study area affect travelers’ ability to reach Eglinton Avenue West or destinations just off it, and may affect access to the planned LRT extension and any associated commuter parking.

Currently, non-drivers travelling between Eglinton Avenue West and points off it can reach their final destination by bus, bike, or on foot. Local TTC bus routes travel north and south from Eglinton Avenue West on Jane Street, Scarlett Road, Royal York Road, Islington Avenue, Kipling Avenue, Martin Grove Road, and Renforth/Wellesworth Drive, making frequent stops at local cross streets.

For people on bikes, first-mile and last-mile connectivity varies substantially along the corridor. The Eglinton Avenue multi-use trail provides good east-west connectivity along the south side of Eglinton Avenue West, the Humber River Recreational Trail provides north-south connectivity from the Scarlett Road intersection, unprotected on-street bike lanes extend northward and southward along Royal York Road and southward along Martin Grove Road, and the Mimico Creek Recreational Trail provides southward connectivity from the Highway 401 intersection. Wincott Drive/Bemersyde Drive, Lloyd Manor Road, and Renforth Drive are designated as Quiet Routes for cycling. However, on the majority of streets intersecting the corridor, including five of the seven major north-south streets, people on bikes must ride either in traffic or on sidewalks.

Pedestrian connectivity is somewhat limited because sidewalks mirror the road network, which is made up of widely spaced arterial roads. As such, there are only direct pedestrian access points to Eglinton Avenue West roughly one every half kilometer, limiting the ability of people walking to move permeably between surrounding neighbourhoods and across the corridor. This is in part because most residential properties abutting Eglinton Avenue West front away from it onto separate suburban-style local streets. Most cross-streets along the corridor have sidewalks on both sides but Eglinton Avenue West itself lacks a sidewalk on its north side between Pearen Park and Jane Street, between Royal York Road and Kipling Avenue, and west of Martin Grove Road due to the numerous ramps connecting to Highways 401 and 427. Crosswalks are signaled for pedestrians, but crossing distances are long given the wide, suburban multi-lane nature of Eglinton Avenue West.

Opportunities to enhance first-mile and last-mile connectivity include:

  • Increasing the number of pedestrian access routes to Eglinton Avenue West from adjacent neighbourhoods, thereby expanding pedestrian access throughout the study area. While midblock connections are not a necessity given the lack of midblock destinations, additional permeability would allow people walking to choose routes to and from the transit stops through quiet paths rather than busy main streets.
  • Completing sidewalk coverage on both sides of Eglinton Avenue West east of Kipling, facilitating pedestrian movement along the entire corridor.
  • Enhancing the safety and comfort of pedestrian crosswalks, with medians incorporated into future LRT track where possible, thereby improving north-south pedestrian connectivity.
  • These measures would enable people to access more of the corridor on foot and would thereby allow commuters to access planned LRT stops more easily. More broadly, opportunities to enhance connectivity for all road users include:
  • Increasing the prevalence and quality of bicycle lanes on roads that intersect Eglinton Avenue West.
  • Ensuring that crosswalks between transfer bus stops and LRT stops are short, highly visible and protected, where possible.Such improvements can improve first-mile and last-mile connectivity in the study area, for people today and in future. These improvements are particularly beneficial to vulnerable transit users, such as seniors, children or people with disabilities, who may otherwise not be able to have access to transit. In improving first-mile and last-mile connectivity, these measures will play an important role in reducing vehicular traffic and ensuring the utility of the LRT extension.
  • Providing more bike lanes along streets that intersect Eglinton Avenue West, particularly major streets such as Scarlett Road, Islington Avenue, and Kipling Avenue, would enable more people to bike to and from residential areas off the corridor. All bike lanes should be adequately protected, either with delineators, buffers, or barriers, to reduce the danger posed by vehicular traffic and make riding more comfortable for people on bikes. These protections should be extended to and continued through intersections, with improvements such as turning boxes, potential conflict zone pavement markings through the intersection, or advanced stops. Similarly, improving the environment of transfer bus stops, particularly by providing short and safe crossings to LRT stops in the middle of Eglinton Avenue West, will minimize the difficulty in transferring between bus and LRT service.

 4. PARKING OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS

Potential Commuter Parking Sites

Multiple locations in the study area could potentially accommodate commuter parking for the planned LRT extension. These sites are located on large empty parcels around Highway 401 and at smaller undeveloped parcels near Islington Avenue and Richview Road. Most are close to planned LRT stops and could accommodate parking lots or garages with good access to the LRT line. However, any parking infrastructure built on sites east of Martin Grove Road would occupy land that could be developed as high-quality transit oriented development or protected as public green space. Sites west of Highway 427 meanwhile, face issues of accessibility and scale. An overview of the size, potential, and cost of each site is provided in Table 2.

The ongoing Martin Grove and Eglinton Study is examining the traffic issues in the area and may recommend a reconfiguration of this interchange. Any realignment of the Martin Grove and Eglinton interchange might result in surplus land. Given the timeline of the project, those potential lots are not yet identified and had not been included in this analysis.

Key Takeaways

Broadly, sites east of Martin Grove Road are better suited for residential or parkland development, however the proximity of many sites to nearby intersections could compromise access to parking and impact congestion. The Renforth Drive/Eglinton Avenue West site is likely too far from a future LRT stop. The Martin Grove Road/Eglinton Avenue West site could provide substantial parking in an area not as well suited to other forms of development, but with the risk of adverse congestion impacts. It should be noted that the Convair Drive/Renforth Drive site is not in the City of Toronto but may otherwise be available for commuter parking.

Table 2             Size, Parking Potential, and Cost of Potential Commuter Parking Sites

Location Area (Sq. M) Potential Surface Parking Spaces Surface Lot Cost Potential Two Level Garage Parking Spaces Above-Grade Garage Cost Below-Grade Garage Cost
Convair Dr @ Renforth Dr 4,600 200 $3.4 Million 400 $16 Million $22.8 Million
Renforth Dr @ Eglinton Ave 36,000 1,000 $17 Million 2,000 $80 Million $114 Million
Martin Grove Rd @ Eglinton Ave (NW & SW) 26,000 (NW)

19,00 (SW)

1,000 $17 Million 2,000 $80 Million $114 Million
Wincott Dr @ Eglinton Ave 3,600 150 $2.5 Million 300 $12 Million $17.1 Million
Islington Ave @ Eglinton Ave 9,000 350 $5.9 Million 700 $28 Million $39.9 Million
Richview Rd Cul-De-Sac 3,000 120 $2 Million 240 $9.6 Million $13.7 Million
Richview Rd @ Scarlett Rd 4,200 175 $3 Million 350 $14 Million $20 Million

Parking Construction Cost Estimation Methodology

Parking construction costs vary widely depending on whether surface, above-grade structured, or below grade structured parking is built. Site conditions also impact construction costs less predictably. For this memo, parking construction costs were calculated using 2014 Canadian Parking Association parking construction cost estimates for the Greater Toronto Area[6], adjusted to reflect the inflation of construction costs from 2014 to 2018 (Table 3). Using this methodology, it is estimated that in 2018 surface parking cost $17,000 per space, above-grade structured parking cost $40,000 per space, and below-grade structured parking cost $57,000 per space.

Table 3             Parking Construction Cost Estimation

  Surface Parking Above-grade Structured Parking Below-grade Structured Parking
2014 Canadian Parking Association Per Space Cost Estimate[7] $15,000 $35,000 $50,000
2018 Construction Cost Inflation Multiplier[8] [9] 1.13 1.13 1.13
2018 Per Space Cost Estimate $17,000 $40,000 $57,000

Advantages & Disadvantages of Potential Commuter Parking Sites

Convair Drive @ Renforth Drive

The lot at the northwest corner of the intersection is currently an undeveloped field accessible from both Convair Drive and Renforth Drive. It is located in the City of Mississauga, and is thus outside the jurisdiction of the City of Toronto. Nevertheless, the site’s proximity to Highway 401 and the airport could make it an optimal location for commuter parking, and the industrial character of the area would be minimally disturbed by the addition of parking infrastructure. However, limited roadway frontage (approximately 80 meters on Convair and Renforth Drive) could make the site difficult to access, likely limiting entry and exit to right-in/right-out due to the proximity of potential driveways to the intersection. It should be noted that this site is in proximity to the future Convair stop, which is outside the scope of this study.

Renforth Drive @ Eglinton Avenue West

This site is comprised of a large area of undeveloped land east of the intersection, accessible from Renforth Drive and Eglinton Avenue West. The site has good connectivity to Highway 401 and Eglinton Avenue’s westward extension into Mississauga. However, the site’s distance from Renforth Station, being nearly 600 meters away, may make this undesirable for commuter parking purposes.

Martin Grove Road @ Eglinton Avenue West

This site is comprised of two separate parcels, which together offer the most potential space for commuter parking along the corridor. To the northwest of the intersection, there is a partly-wooded undeveloped parcel beneath overhead power lines, accessible on four sides from Richgrove Drive, Willowridge Drive, Martin Grove Road, and Eglinton Avenue West. To the southwest of the intersection, there is an undeveloped parcel beneath the same overhead lines. It is accessible from Eglinton Avenue West and Martin Grove Road, though access via Eglinton Avenue West would interrupt the multi-use path on the south side of the road. These sites are well positioned relative to Highways 401 and 427 but parking infrastructure here could increase congestion at the Martin Grove Road/Eglinton Avenue West intersection that already accommodates 6,000 vehicles during peak hours[10] under congested conditions. Parking at this location would require significant consultations and an agreement with Hydro One, as well as a likely need to accommodate an Enbridge gas line that runs through this area.

Wincott Drive @ Eglinton Avenue West

This site is an undeveloped parcel on the northeastern corner of the intersection accessible from Wincott Drive and Eglinton Avenue West. The site is adjacent to the future Wincott/Bemersyde LRT stop but is small and ideal for transit-oriented development or public space creation that could integrate surrounding residential areas into the Eglinton corridor. Furthermore, potential driveways would be located close to the Wincott Drive/Eglinton Avenue West intersection, likely requiring access to be restricted to right-in/right-out. With the expected widening of Eglinton Avenue West, the site may become too small to provide significant commuter parking. Any development of the site would require commuter parking to be temporary or incorporated into potential future development.

Islington Avenue @ Eglinton Avenue West

This site is an undeveloped parcel situated at the northwest of the intersection, accessible from Islington Avenue and Eglinton Avenue West. It is adjacent to the future Islington LRT stop and large enough to accommodate commuter parking, but may ultimately be better suited to residential development or preservation as parkland, given that it includes pockets of mature vegetation and is adjacent to a heavily treed woodlot. Furthermore, with the expected widening of Eglinton Avenue West, the site may become too small to provide commuter parking and, as with the Wincott Drive site, its proximity to the Islington Avenue/Eglinton Avenue West intersection would likely require access to be restricted to right-in/right-out. Any development of the site would require commuter parking to be temporary or incorporated into potential future development.

Richview Road Cul-de-sac

This site is a small parcel of undeveloped land at the western end of Richview Road, via which it is accessible. The site could be made accessible from Eglinton Avenue West but a parking lot or structure would conflict with surrounding residences, schools, and future residential development of adjacent sites. As with the Wincott Drive and Islington Avenue sites, this site is likely to be a prime candidate for potential residential development or public space creation, which would require any commuter parking on the site to be temporary or incorporated into the future development. While no arborist report is yet available, the scale of the vegetation in the lot suggests that some of the trees may require protection.

Richview Road @ Scarlett Road

This site is a small parcel of undeveloped land west of the Richview Road/Scarlett Road intersection, between the Richview Villa and Anders Research Inc. buildings. It is only accessible from Richview Road. The site is not well suited for commuter parking due to limited accessibility, distance from the Scarlett Road stops (300 meters), and its location amongst residential buildings.

Commuter Parking Usage & Operations

Commuter parking built in the study area would likely be operated in a manner consistent with other commuter parking facilities in Toronto, and used in a similar fashion to other commuter parking facilities in the region. Two main users groups, primarily people from outside the immediate study area, could be expected to use commuter parking.

Parking Users

People living in the study area may park at future LRT stops but are unlikely to be the primary users of commuter parking facilities, given their proximity to the line. For these residents, the relative ease of walking, biking, or taking transit to an LRT stop would likely dissuade them from paying to park at a commuter parking facility.

Current Greater Toronto Area commute patterns, and the proximity of the study area to the major regional highways mean that many users of commuter parking facilities would likely come from outside of the City of Toronto. For commuters travelling from Mississauga, Brampton, and other areas north and west of Toronto to destinations in central or eastern Toronto, the future LRT line may provide an attractive alternative to driving through the city during congested periods. Commuter parking would allow these commuters to reach the study area via Highways 401 and 427, park, and transfer to the LRT for onward travel. Because of their distance from the LRT and lack of alternative means of access, such commuters from outside the City of Toronto would be reliant on commuter parking in order to use LRT service.

People living just beyond the study area in Etobicoke are also likely to be one of the main groups of commuter parking users. Many of these residents currently lack east-west rapid transit, and even for those near Bloor-Danforth subway or future Finch LRT, all residents who need to travel along Eglinton Avenue West will benefit from enhanced connectivity. Residents of these areas will live beyond typical walking, or even bicycling, distances from LRT stops. For many, particularly Toronto’s growing elderly population driving may be the most convenient means by which to access LRT service. [11]

Potential Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Parking Demand

Nelson\Nygaard and Perkins+Will anticipate that autonomous vehicles (AVs) could reduce the demand for parking in a future where AVs are predominately shared.[12] In this scenario, fewer parking spaces would be required because vehicles would drop passengers off and continue to operate, rather than parking and waiting for passengers to return. In a future where AVs are predominantly personal rather than shared, the space needed for parking would likely decline, albeit by less than the previous scenario, because vehicles would be able to park themselves efficiently in less space than human drivers.[13]

Pricing

The Toronto Parking Authority, commonly known as Green P, operates most public parking facilities in Toronto, including approximately 14,000 parking spaces at TTC stations. [14] The Authority would likely operate commuter parking facilities along the Eglinton West LRT extension, and would likely price them in line with its standard pricing practices.

Currently, rates between $1 and $4 per half hour across the Authority’s parking facilities, largely based on proximity to downtown Toronto. [15] Some facilities, including many existing commuter parking lots, charge a flat fee. Flat fee charges typically range between $5 and $7 for daytime parking, and are typically less than $2 for nighttime parking. [16] Some garages offer a limited number of monthly permits. Existing parking rates such as these are not likely to act as a disincentive to those that may park at commuter parking facilities along the LRT extension.

Revenue

For this memo, parking revenues were estimated with the following assumptions, drawn from TTC occupancy data and Toronto Parking Authority pricing information:

  • Daytime parking occupancy is assumed to be 90 percent.[17]
  • Evening parking occupancy is assumed to be 45 percent.
  • Lots are assumed to operate with a $6 flat rate during daytime hours.
  • Lots are assumed to operate with a $2 flat rate during evening hours.
  • Lots are assumed to operate for free on weekends and holidays, leaving 251 days of revenue operation per year.
  • This methodology is intended only to provide a high level estimate of parking revenues from the potential Eglinton Avenue West parking facilities and accordingly, does not take into account turnover rates at parking facilities, demand elasticities, or seasonal changes in parking demand. Further research into such factors would be required to more accurately understand parking facility utilization patterns.

Table 6             Estimated Revenue from Potential Commuter Parking Sites

Location Potential Surface Parking Spaces Estimated Annual Revenue Potential Two Level Garage Parking Spaces Estimated Annual Revenue
Convair Dr @ Renforth Dr 200 $316,260 400 $632,520
Renforth Dr @ Eglinton Ave 1,000 $1,581,300 2,000 $3,162,600
Martin Grove Rd @ Eglinton Ave (NW & SW) 1,000 $1,581,300 2,000 $3,162,600
Wincott Dr @ Eglinton Ave 150 $237,195 300 $474,390
Islington Ave @ Eglinton Ave 350 $553,455 700 $1,106,910
Richview Rd Cul-De-Sac 120 $189,756 240 $379,512
Richview Rd @ Scarlett Rd 175 $276,728 350 $553,455

Operational Costs

For this memo, parking operational costs were calculated using 2014 Canadian Parking Association parking operational cost estimates for the Greater Toronto Area[18], adjusted to reflect overall inflation from 2014 to 2018. Using this methodology, it is estimated that in 2018, a surface level parking space cost $250 per space per year to operate, while structured parking spaces cost $500 per space per year to operate.

Table 4             Parking Operation Cost Estimation Methodology

  Surface Parking Above-grade Structured Parking Below-grade Structured Parking
2014 Canadian Parking Association Per Space Cost Estimate $250 $500 $500
2018 Overall Inflation Multiplier[19] 1.07 1.07 1.07
2018 Per Space Cost Estimate $268 $536 $536

Using this methodology, the potential commuter parking facilities outlined in this memo could incur operational costs as shown below.

Table 5             Parking Operational Cost Estimation

Location Potential Surface Parking Spaces Estimated Annual Operating Cost (2018) Potential Two Level Garage Parking Spaces Estimated Annual Operating Cost (2018)
Convair Dr @ Renforth Dr 200 $53,600 400 $214,400
Renforth Dr @ Eglinton Ave 1,000 $268,000 2,000 $1,072,000
Martin Grove Rd @ Eglinton Ave (NW & SW) 1,000 $268,000 2,000 $1,072,000
Wincott Dr @ Eglinton Ave 150 $40,200 300 $160,800
Islington Ave @ Eglinton Ave 350 $93,800 700 $375,200
Richview Rd Cul-De-Sac 120 $32,160 240 $128,640
Richview Rd @ Scarlett Rd 175 $46,900 350 $187,600

 5. ALIGNMENT WITH CITY’S VISION

While commuter parking in the study area may be feasible, and indeed beneficial to some, it does not align with the City of Toronto’s vision for the future of urban transportation. The City is working to reduce the number of vehicular trips by investing in transit and active transportation. Increasing the supply of parking is not encouraged by the City, and does not align with Toronto’s Official Plan goal of “providing a broad range of sustainable transportation options”[20] or provincial pursuit of a “density and mix of uses… that minimize the length and number of vehicle trips and support… transit and active transportation”. The Eglinton West LRT extension is important part of realizing the City’s vision for a less automobile-oriented future and generally, commuter parking would diminish the potentially transformative effects of this transportation investment.

6. Impacts of commuter parking

The construction of commuter parking along the Eglinton West LRT extension would allow car-dependent local and regional commuters to make use of the service who might otherwise be less likely to do so. However, many of the potential commuter parking facilities described in this memo would occupy land better suited to transit-oriented development or natural preservation. Ultimately, the development of transit-oriented buildings and neighbourhoods is the City’s priority. Other potential facilities, given their location and accessibility, could worsen local congestion, or may be too distant from planned LRT stops.

In addition to these local tradeoffs, there are wider impacts associated with commuter parking. The provision of parking in the study could lead to an increase in regional automobile trips if more commuters begin driving from outside the study area to park at commuter parking facilities. This could worsen congestion, particularly on approach routes to the study area such as Highways 401 and 427, which already experience significant congestion. By facilitating automobile use at any level, the provision of commuter parking would contribute to the continued emissions of regionally harmful pollutants and globally harmful greenhouse gasses, and to the continued negative safety and quality of life impacts of automobile usage.

Note: For the full/PDF version of this memo, please email eglintonwestlrt@toronto.ca

[1] Statistics Canada. “2016 Canadian Census (Data By Aggregate Dissemination Area)”. 2016. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/index-eng.cfm

[2] Spurr, B & Cole. M. Toronto Star. “Share of Torontonians taking public transit is on the rise, while reliance on cars declines”. Nov 29th 2017. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/transportation/2017/11/29/share-of-torontonians-taking-public-transit-is-on-the-rise-while-reliance-on-cars-declines.html.

[3] Statistics Canada. “2016 Canadian Census (Data By Aggregate Dissemination Area)”. 2016. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/index-eng.cfm

[4] TTC. “Route 32 Eglinton West Schedule – Eastbound on Eglinton Ave West At Royal York Rd”. January 20th, 2019. http://www.ttc.ca/Schedule/schedule.jsp?Route=32E&Stop=e.b._on_Eglinton_Ave_West_at_Royal_York_Rd

[5] ESRI. “TTC Ridership and Routes”. January 20th, 2019. https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?webmap=81d48db59aec4e9d8d80eeb79b5b1df1

[6] Bond, Ralph. “The High Cost of Hospital Parking?”. Canadian Parking Association. September 30th 2014. https://canadianparking.ca/the-high-cost-of-hospital-parking/

[7] Ibid.

[8] Cudney, Gary. “Parking Structure Cost Outlook for 2014”. Carl Walker. April 2014. http://cal.streetsblog.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2015/07/April-Newsletter-2014.pdf

[9] Cudney, Gary. “Parking Structure Cost Outlook for 2018”. WGI. 2018. https://wginc.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Parking-Construction-Cost-Article-17×11-8.5×11-Pages.pdf

[10] Individual intersection traffic counts provided by City of Toronto Traffic Safety Unit.

[11] City of Toronto. “Backgrounder – 2016 Census: Age and Sex: Type of Dwelling”. May 4th, 2017. https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/96d7-2016-Census-Backgrounder-Age-Sex-Dwelling-Type.pdf

[12] Nelson\Nygaard & Parkwins+Will. “Autonomous Vehicles & the Future of Parking”. Winter 2018. http://nelsonnygaard.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Our_Views_on_Autonomous_Vehicles_and_The_Future_of_Parking.pdf

[13] Meier-Burkert, Friedrike. “With self-parking cars and intelligent fleet management, real estate developers save time and money.” Audi Urban Future Initiative blog. November 17, 2015. http://audi-urban-future-initiative.com/blog/urban-future-partnership-somerville-boston cited in http://nelsonnygaard.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Our_Views_on_Autonomous_Vehicles_and_The_Future_of_Parking.pdf.

[14] TTC. “Parking- Commuter Parking”. 2019. http://www.ttc.ca/Riding_the_TTC/Parking/index.jsp

[15] City of Toronto. “Parking Lots – Toronto Parking Authority – Green P – Rates – Maintenance”. 2018. https://www.toronto.ca/311/knowledgebase/kb/docs/articles/special-purpose-bodies-and-external-organizations/agencies,-boards,-commissions-and-corporations-abccs/commercial-boards/toronto-parking-authority/parking-lots-toronto-parking-authority-green-p-rates-maintenance.html

[16] Toronto Municipal Parking Authority. “Find Parking”. 2019. https://parking.greenp.com/find-parking/

[17] TTC. “Commuter Parking Update”. December 20th 2016. https://www.ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2016/December_20/Reports/9_Commuter_Parking_Update.pdf

[18] Bond, Ralph. “The High Cost of Hospital Parking?”. Canadian Parking Association. September 30th 2014. https://canadianparking.ca/the-high-cost-of-hospital-parking/

[19] Bank of Canada. “Inflation Calculator. 2019. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/related/inflation-calculator/

[20] City of Toronto. “Official Plan-Chapter 2”. 2014. https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/9048-cp-official-plan-chapter-2.pdf.

Note: For the full/PDF version of this memo, please email eglintonwestlrt@toronto.ca

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